Waterborne and Vector-borne Disease

Our Research

In recent years, waterborne and vector-borne parasitic and bacterial diseases have emerged or re-emerged in many geographical regions, causing global health and economic problems. The ecology and epidemiology of waterborne and vector-borne diseases are affected by the interrelations between three main factors comprising the pathogen, the host, and the environment. Lincoln Centre for Water and Planetary Health researchers are interested in the potential impact of diseases on human health.

Historical Reconstruction of Epidemic Disease

Historical reconstruction of epidemic disease is important because it allows us to test the key factors associated with its spread, severity, and varying degrees of human susceptibility. Epidemic disease was reconstructed from parish registers of burials, particularly in areas where there was systematic recording of mortality in England. LCWPH researchers are interested in exploring the role of extreme weather events and climatic change in the outbreak, spread, and severity of epidemics.

Spatial Agent-Based Modelling of Malaria (ABM)

Understanding a landscape epidemiology system requires more than an understanding of the different types of individuals (host, vector, and pathogen) that comprise the system. It also requires understanding how the individuals interact with each other and with the environment. Two mosquito-control interventions were modelled using GIS and an ABM for a study site in Kenya. LCWPH researchers are interested in integrating data from social media and apps to create a dynamic ABM model.

Key Personnel and Expertise

Professor Mark Macklin - Mining and river processes

Professor Chris Thomas - spatial ecology

Dr Dilkushi de Alwis Pitts - Spatial analysis and modelling

Dr Matthew Hannaford - Disease history, documentary reconstruction, climate and disease.


Team Member Publication 
ilkushi de Alwis Pitts   
Mark Macklin

Smith, M.W., Willis, T., Alfieri, L., James, W.H.M., Trigg, M.A., Yamazaki, D., Hardy, A.J., Bisselink, B., De Roo, A., Macklin, M.G. and Thomas, C.J., 2020. Incorporating hydrology into climate suitability models changes projections of malaria transmission in Africa. Nature communications, 11(1), pp.1-9. 


Cross, D.E., Thomas, C.J., McKeown, N., Siaziyu, V., Healey, A., Willis, T., Singini, D., Liywali, F., Silumesi, A., Sakala, J., Smith, M., Macklin, M.G. and Thomas, C.J.2020. Geographically extensive larval surveys reveal an unexpected scarcity of primary vector mosquitoes in a region of persistent malaria transmission in western Zambia. 

Matthew Hannaford   
Chris Thomas   
Holly Norton   
Amy Healy    


Team Member Project 
Mark Macklin NERC award (2017-2021) to Professor C J Thomas, Dr A Hardy, Professor M G Macklin and Dr M W Smith to investigate “FLOODMAL: The impacts of flooding and changed river flows on malaria hazard”. £591,107 
Matthew Hannaford  
Chris Thomas TextNERC award (2017-2021) to Professor C J Thomas, Dr A Hardy, Professor M G Macklin and Dr M W Smith to investigate “FLOODMAL: The impacts of flooding and changed river flows on malaria hazard”. £591,107 
Holly Norton   Climate variability and epidemic disease in early modern eastern England (LCWPH-funded PhD studentship) 
Amy Healy    

Contact Us

School of Geography, College of Health and Science
University of Lincoln, Think Tank, Ruston Way, Lincoln, LN6 7DW

Tel: +44(0)1522 835820