Conflict and Disasters Research Group

Bringing Together Expertise

The Conflict and Disasters Research Group is a socio-legal and interdisciplinary group led by academics with a passion for researching conflict and disaster situations. It brings together existing expertise and networks from the UK and overseas. 

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For more information please see below, or visit our Research blog page and Twitter

What are we doing?

This Research Group is led by academics with a passion for researching conflict and disaster situations. It brings together existing expertise and networks from the UK and overseas. The research group facilitates interdisciplinary discussion and research within social sciences, life sciences and the arts, both within the University of Lincoln and externally.


Why is it important?

Conflicts and disasters have affected, and will continue to affect, individuals, communities, States, regions and continent’s. The Research Group’s mission is to progress the ability of people, States and international organisations to withstand and rebuild after conflicts and disasters. The Research Group, therefore, facilitates interdisciplinary discussion, events and projects.


How are we different?

The Research Group is a socio-legal and interdisciplinary group. Its members are academics and have worked on the ground, with community groups, with the State and international organisations in the fields of conflicts and disasters. 



Dr. Alexandra Bohm


Senior Lecturer in Law


Dr. Amal Ali


Senior Lecturer in Law


Amber Smith


PhD Researcher


Ben Hudson


Lecturer in Law


Dr. Bonaventura Majolo


Reader in Psychology


Dr. Christy Shucksmith-Wesley  


Assistant Professor, University of Nottingham


Dr. James Heydon


Lecturer in Law


Professor Louis J. Kotzé


Marie Curie Research Fellow


Max Brookman-Byrne


Lecturer in Law


Dr Scarlett McArdle


Senior Lecturer in Law


Thomas Welch


Postgraduate Teaching Assistant


Tom Martin


Lecturer, School of Film & Media


Dr Alexandra Bohm

Brown, Garrett W. and Bohm, Alexandra (2016) Introducing Jus ante Bellum as a cosmopolitan approach to humanitarian intervention. European Journal of International Relations, 22 (4). pp. 897-919. ISSN: 1354-0661

Bohm, Alexandra (2013) Responding to crises: the problematic relationship between security and justice in The Responsibility to Protect. Global Policy, 4 (3). pp. 247-257. ISSN: 1758-5880

Hervey, Tamara and Cryer, Robert and Sokhi-Bulley, Bal and Bohm, Alexandra (2011) Legal research methodologies in EU and international law. Hart Publishing. ISBN: 1841132357

Collins, Richard and Bohm, Alexandra (2017) International law as professional practice: the bounds of legal autonomy. In: International law as a profession. CUP, Cambridge. ISBN: 9781107140394

Bohm, Alexandra (2016) Security and international law: the ‘responsibility to protect’. In: Security and international law. Hart Publishing, UK. ISBN: 9781849466349

Brown, Garrett W. and Bohm, Alexandra (2015) Mieux vaut prévenir que guérir: repenser l’approche cosmopolitique de l’intervention humanitaire. In: Le cosmopolitisme juridique. Pedone Publishing. ISBN: 978223300755


Dr Amal Ali

Castillo Ortiz, Pablo and Ali, Amal and Samanta, Navajyoti (2018) Gender, Intersectionality and Religious Manifestation Before the European Court of Human Rights. Journal of Human Rights . ISSN 1475-4835

Ali, Amal (2018) Intersectionality before the courts: the face veil cases. In: New directions in anti-racist scholarship and activism. Zed Publishing

Marshall, Jill and Alghrani, Amel and Ali, Amal (2018) Feminist judgment of Leyla Sahin v Turkey. In: International Feminist Judgment Project. Hart Publishing. ISBN UNSPECIFIED

Amal, Ali (2016) The experiences of face veil wearers in Europe and the law [Eva Brems, 2016].


Ben Hudson

Hudson, Ben (2018) Migration in the Mediterranean: Exposing the Limits of Vulnerability at the European Court of Human Rights. Maritime Safety and Security Law Journal, 4 . pp. 26-46. ISSN 2464-9724 Ballard, Megan and Hudson, Ben (2018) Editorial. Journal of Internal Displacement, 8 (1). pp. 2-4. ISSN 1920-5805 

Hudson, Ben (2017) Homosexuality and “gay propaganda”. European Human Rights Law Review, 2017 (5). pp. 505-508. ISSN 1361-1526 

Hudson, Ben (2017) Murder of a journalist. European Human Rights Law Review, 2017 (4). pp. 406-409. ISSN 1361-1526 

Hudson, Ben (2017) Labour exploitation and human trafficking. European Human Rights Law Review, 2017 (3). pp. 326-329. ISSN 1361-1526 

Hudson, Ben (2017) Migrants on Lampedusa. European Human Rights Law Review, 2017 (2). pp. 192-195. ISSN 1361-1526

Hudson, Ben (2016) Pension entitlements of Gurkha soldiers. European Human Rights Law Review, 2017 (1). pp. 94-97. ISSN 1361-1526 

Hudson, Ben (2016) Confiscation of personal possessions in the Transdniestrian region. European Human Rights Law Review, 2016 (6). pp. 696-699. ISSN 1361-1526 

Hudson, Ben (2016) Ne bis in idem. European Human Rights Law Review, 2016 (5). pp. 588-590. ISSN 1361-1526 

Hudson, Ben (2016) Detention of minors. European Human Rights Law Review, 2016 (4). pp. 461-465. ISSN 1361-1526 

Hudson, Ben (2016) Housing assistance to displaced persons. European Human Rights Law Review, 2016 (3). pp. 322-325. ISSN 1361-1526 

Hudson, Ben (2016) Demonstrations: the case of Budahazy v Hungary. European Human Rights Law Review, 2016 (2). pp. 219-222. ISSN 1361-1526


Dr Bonaventura Majolo

Campbell, Liz AD and Tkaczynski,, Patrick J and Lehmann, Julia and Mouna, Mohamed and Majolo, Bonaventura (2018) Social thermo-regulation as a potential mechanism linking sociality and fitness: Barbary macaques with more social partners form larger huddles. Scientific Reports, 8 . ISSN 2045-2322 

Majolo, Bonaventura and Romero, Teresa (2018) Commentary: No unique effect of intergroup competition on cooperation: non-competitive thresholds are as effective as competition between groups for increasing human cooperative behavior. Frontiers in Psychology . 02322. ISSN 1664-1078 

Balasubramaniam, Krishna N. and Beisner, Brianne A. and Berman, Carol M. and De Marco, Arianna and Duboscq, Julie and Koirala, Sabina and Majolo, Bonaventura and MacIntosh, Andrew J. and Mcfarland, Richard and Molesti, Sandra and Ogawa, Hideshi and Petit, Odile and Schino, Gabriele and Sosa, Sebastian and Sueur, Cédric and Thierry, Bernard and de Waal, Frans B. M. and McCowan, Brenda (2018) The influence of phylogeny, social style, and sociodemographic factors on macaque social network structure. American Journal of Primatology, 80 (1). e22727. ISSN 0275-2565 

Carne, Charlotte and Semple, Stuart and MacLarnon, Ann and Majolo, Bonaventura and Marechal, Laetitia (2017) Implications of tourist-macaque interactions for disease transmission. EcoHealth, 14 (4). pp. 704-717. ISSN 1612-9202 

Rincon, Alan V. and Marechal, Laetitia and Semple, Stuart and Majolo, Bonaventura and MacLarnon, Ann (2017) Correlates of androgens in wild male Barbary macaques: Testing the challenge hypothesis. American Journal of Primatology, 70 (10). e22689. ISSN 0275-2565 

Molesti, Sandra and Majolo, Bonaventura (2017) Evidence of direct reciprocity, but not of indirect and generalized reciprocity, in the grooming exchanges of wild Barbary macaques (Macacasylvanus). American Journal of Primatology, 79 (9). ISSN 0275-2565 

Marechal, Laetitia and Levy, Xandria and Meints, Kerstin and Majolo, Bonaventura (2017) Experience-based human perception of facial expressions in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). PeerJ, 5 . e3413. ISSN 2167-8359 

Kuběnová, Barbora and Konečnáa, Martina and Majolo, Bonaventura and Šmilauerd, Petr and Ostner, Julia and Schülke, Oliver (2017) Triadic awareness predicts partner choice in male–infant–male interactions in Barbary macaques. Animal Cognition, 20 (2). pp. 221-232. ISSN 1435-9448 

Majolo, Bonaventura and Marechal, Laetitia (2017) Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children. Scientific Reports, 7 (43277). ISSN 2045-2322

Majolo, Bonaventura (2017) Dominance. In: The International Encyclopedia of Primatology. Wiley. ISBN 9780470673379


Dr Christy Shucksmith-Wesley

Shucksmith, Christy (2017) The International Committee of the Red Cross and its Mandate to Protect and Assist: Law and Practice (Hart Publishing)

Shucksmith, Christy (2017) Building Human Security Through Humanitarian Protection and Assistance: The Potential of the International Committee of the Red Cross (forthcoming)

Shuckmith, Christy (2017) The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement Response to Ebola 2014-2016  In: Mark Eccleston-Turner (ed)  Infectious Diseases in the New Millennium: Legal and Ethical Challenges(Palgrave-MacMillan 2017/2018)

Shucksmith, Christy and White, Nigel D. (2015) United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP). In: The Oxford handbook of United Nations peacekeeping operations. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN: 9780199686049

Shucksmith, Christy (2016) Torture and moral integrity: a philosophical enquiry [Matthew H. Kramer: Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014].

Shucksmith, Christy (2012) The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament v The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs and The Secretary of State for Defence, Advisory declaration, [2002] EWHC 2777 (Admin); ILDC 662 (UK 2002), 17 December 2002. Other. Oxford Law Reports.

Shucksmith, Christy (2012) R v Secretary of State for the Home Department Ex Parte Saadi (FC) and others (FC), Appeal Judgment, (2002) UKHL 41; ILDC 245 (UK 2002); 31 October 2002. Other. Oxford Law Reports.

Shucksmith, Christy (2012) Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department ex parte Razgar, Appeal judgment, [2004] UKHL 27; ILDC 104 (UK 2004); [2004] 2 AC 368; [2004] 3 WLR 58; [2004] 3 All ER 821, 17 June 2004. Other. Oxford Law Reports.

Shucksmith, Christy (2012) Secretary of State for the Home Department v K(FC); Fornah (FC) v Secretary of State for the Home Department, Appeal Judgment, [2006] UKHL 46; ILDC 732 (UK 2006), 18 October 2006. Other. Oxford Law Reports.


Dr James Heydon

Heydon, James (2019) Greening the Concept of State Crime. State Crime . ISSN 2046-6056 

Heydon, James (2018) Sensitising green criminology to procedural environmental justice: a case study of First Nation consultation in the Canadian oil sands. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy . ISSN 2202-7998

Heydon, James (2018) Indigenous environmental victimisation in the Canadian oil sands. In: The international handbook of green criminology. Routledge. ISBN 9781138633803

Heydon, James (2017) Social protection after the crisis: regulation without enforcement [Steve Tombs, Bristol: Policy Press (2016)]. Justice, Power and Resistance, 1 (2). pp. 330-333. ISSN 2398-2764


Prof Louis J Kotzé

Louis Kotze’s research focuses on the Anthropocene, environmental constitutionalism, human rights, and global environmental governance and he has published over 100 publications on these themes. His recent books include: Research Handbook on Human Rights and the Environment (with Anna Grear-Edward Elgar, 2015); Global Environmental Constitutionalism in the Anthropocene (Hart, 2016); Environmental Law and Governance for the Anthropocene (Hart, 2017). He is co-editor of the Journal of Human Rights and the Environment. In 2016 he obtained a second Phd at Tilburg University and he has recently been awarded the prestigious European Commission Horizon 2020 Marie Curie Fellowship to conduct research for two years in the UK and the Netherlands.


Dr Scarlett McArdle

McArdle, Scarlett (2018) International organisations and the pluralist international system: threatening the role of human rights? In: Human rights and power in times of globalisation. Brill. ISBN 9789004346390 

McArdle, Scarlett and Eccleston-Turner, Mark (2018) The Law of Responsibility and the World Health Organisation: a Case Study on the West African Ebola Outbreak. In: Infectious diseases in the new millennium: Legal and Ethical Challenges. Springer. 

McArdle, Scarlett (2017) Accountability, international law, and the World Health Organization: a need for reform? Global Health Governance, 11 (1). pp. 27-39. ISSN 1939-2389

McArdle, Scarlett and Cardwell, Paul James (2012) EU external representation and the International Law Commission: an increasingly significant international role for the European Union? In: Principles and Practices of EU External Representation. Centre for the Law of EU External Relations, The Hague, pp. 83-102.