Mental Toughness Research Group

Examining Mental Resilience

Lincoln's Mental Toughness Research Group (mTOUGH) examines the importance of mental resilience across a broad range of contexts including sport, exercise, health, and education.

Our research aims to provide an understanding of how and why mentally resilient individuals are able to withstand pressure, stress, and adversity in life.

As society continues to place importance on helping to improve the mental health of groups and individuals, our research looks to develop models and interventions to help enhance the practice of our own mental resilience which is vital in learning how to harnessing mental resilience can help the human race.

Academic Staff

Dr Lee Crust 

Senior Lecturer

Dr Adam Coussens

Senior Lecturer

Dr Patricia Jackman


Miss Rebecca Hawkins


Research Publications

The impact of mental toughness on lifestyle choices in university students

Students moving to university can experience a challenging transition; potentially leading to an unhealthy lifestyle, e.g., inadequate physi...

Exploring the interactions underlying flow states: a connecting analysis of flow occurrence in European Tour golfers

Objectives: Research to date has identified a range of factors suggested to facilitate flow states in sport. However, less attention has foc...

Relationships between mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate students

This study examined relationships between mental toughness (MT) and psychological wellbeing (PWB) in undergraduate students. Following previ...

Effect of mental toughness on weight loss at a national weight loss group

Adhering a to diet programme to lose weight can be challenging. Individual differences are proposed to influence adherence to healthy lifest...

An inductive exploration into the flow experiences of European Tour golfers

This study explored perceptions regarding the experience of flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1975) in elite golf; a sport which is different to those ...

Defining elite athletes: issues in the study of expert performance in sport psychology

Objectives: There has been considerable inconsistency and confusion in the definition of elite/expert athletes in sport psychology research,...

The relationship between mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate students

Recent research has highlighted concerns over the mental health of university students. All three years of standard undergraduate study has ...

Producing employable graduates in sport: maximising the benefits of volunteering

Concern has been expressed about the low proportion of sports graduates finding careers within the field (Minten, 2010). Recently-commission...

A connecting analysis of flow occurrence in elite golfers

In sport psychology, flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 2002) is an intrinsically rewarding state in which individuals perceive a balance between chall...

A phenomenological exploration of exercise mental toughness: perceptions of exercise leaders and regular exercisers

Although elite sport has provided an ideal context for exploring mental toughness (MT), currently, there is scant research examining how thi...