Course Information
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3 years School of History and Heritage Lincoln Campus [L] Subject to Validation BBC (112 UCAS Tariff points) (or equivalent qualifications) VV13


The BA (Hons) Art History and History course offers students the opportunity to explore the rich artistic and architectural heritage of the past, learning how to interrogate visual and material evidence critically and to construct arguments about societies and cultures, their values and identities. Students can do this alongside the study of texts, from medieval chronicles and modern archives to newspapers and film.

The course aims to build on established strengths within the School of History and Heritage and enjoys close links with our programme in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage. Lincoln is a superb city in which to study Art History and History, having a beautiful 1000-year-old cathedral, a medieval castle and an original 1215 copy of Magna Carta.

The city is also home to The Collection, which incorporates Lincolnshire’s award-winning archaeology museum and the region’s premier art gallery, the Usher gallery.

How You Study

Contact Hours and Reading for a Degree

Students on this programme learn from academic staff who are often engaged in world-leading or internationally excellent research or professional practice. Contact time can be in workshops, practical sessions, seminars or lectures and may vary from module to module and from academic year to year. Tutorial sessions and project supervision can take the form of one-to-one engagement or small group sessions. Some courses offer the opportunity to take part in external visits and fieldwork.

It is still the case that students read for a degree and this means that in addition to scheduled contact hours, students are required to engage in independent study. This allows you to read around a subject and to prepare for lectures and seminars through wider reading, or to complete follow up tasks such as assignments or revision. As a general guide, the amount of independent study required by students at the University of Lincoln is that for every hour in class you are expected to spend at least two to three hours in independent study.

How You Are Assessed

For this course, assessment is 100% coursework in the first year. In the second year it is 70.8% coursework, 16.7% practical exams and 12.5% written exams. In the final year its is 96.1% coursework, 3.9% practical exams and 52.8% written exams.

The way students are assessed on this course may vary for each module. Examples of assessment methods that may be used include coursework, such as written assignments, reports or dissertations; practical exams, such as presentations, and written exams, such as formal examinations or in-class tests. The weighting given to each assessment method may vary across each academic year. The University of Lincoln’s policy is to ensure that staff return assessments to students promptly.


Throughout this degree, students may receive tuition from professors, senior lecturers, lecturers, researchers, practitioners, visiting experts or technicians, and they may be supported in their learning by other students.

For a comprehensive list of teaching staff, please see our School of History and Heritage Staff Pages.

Entry Requirements 2018-19

GCE Advanced Levels: BBC

International Baccalaureate: 29 points overall

BTEC Extended Diploma: Distinction, Merit, Merit

Access to Higher Education Diploma: A minimum of 45 level 3 credits at merit or above will be required.

In addition, applicants must have a minimum of three GCSEs (or the equivalent) at grade C or above, to include English.

We encourage applications from mature students and will give individual consideration to those in this category without the standard entry requirements.

Students whose first language is not English will also need a British Council IELTS band 6.0 or above or equivalent.

If you would like further information about entry requirements, or would like to discuss whether the qualifications you are currently studying are acceptable, please contact the Admissions team on 01522 886097, or email

Level 1

Critical Thinking and Writing (Core)

This module aims to equip students with the skills necessary to communicate their learning in an academic environment, and also supports students in adjusting to the demands of higher education. The core objective of the module is to develop students’ critical thinking and writing skills.

Forging the Modern State (Core)

This module provides a thematic survey of European and Atlantic history from the mid-eighteenth century to the final decades of the twentieth century, structured around the research interests of members of the module teaching team. This survey provides an overview of key moments in modern history from 1750-1979, and addresses the complex development of states primarily in western Europe but with attention to the growing influence of the United States and Russia.

History and Theory of Architecture and Design (Core)

This module is designed to covers the development of architecture, art and design from ancient times through to the present. Visual research, analysis and presentation techniques can be developed alongside text-based academic techniques.

Introduction to Visual and Material Culture (Core)

This module is designed as an introduction to visual and material culture, embracing the history of art and architecture, historical archaeology, and the conservation of historical buildings. It aims to enable students to interrogate visual and material objects throughout the past and to understand their functions and possible meanings of visual and material objects as primary sources.

Materials, Techniques, Technologies in the History of Art (Core)

This module explores the relevance of materials and artistic techniques in the understanding and analysis of art and material culture. The concept of materiality has an increasing prominence in the intellectual discourse of Art History, and this module will allow students to engage with this theoretical framework by exploring the relevance of materials and techniques, the processes through which artefacts are constructed. The last part of the module will introduce students to a selection of technologies (especially digital technologies) that assist scholars in the investigation of the past, such as photography, digital mapping and virtual heritage visualisation. In this way, students will be exposed to these technologies not only as investigation tools that they might use, but also as potential career pathways.

The Historian’s Craft (Core)

This module focuses on developing students’ research skills in history and their understanding of research as a process of inquiry. Rather than acting as passive consumers of history, students can work alongside academic historians from within the School to deconstruct a published piece of historical research through a process of ‘reverse engineering’, and to build their own research project from scratch.

The Medieval World (Core)

This module offers an introduction to the sources, approaches and methods necessary for the study of the medieval world. Lectures provide a survey of key moments in medieval history from 300-1500, structured around the research specialisms of the module teaching team. The module focuses on issues of religion and power in the Middle Ages, while there is a strong methodological focus on the materiality of the medieval period.

Level 2

Accessing Ordinary Lives: Interpreting and Understanding Voices from the Past, 1880 – present (Option)

This module provides students with the opportunity to resurrect and understand the ordinary lives of people like themselves and their forebears from the sources available to us. The course picks up on both well-established and recent trends in historical research that have sought to give voice to ordinary people and promote from the historical records the lives of marginalised people such as homosexuals, women, children, the working classes, ethnic minorities alongside more familiar narratives of the great and the good.

Aesthetics (Option)

This module introduces students to philosophical questions about the nature of art and beauty. For example: What is art? Can anything be a work of art? Can a pile of elephant dung be art? Is beauty objectively real or only ‘in the eye of the beholder’? Can aesthetic judgements be right or wrong? Is Beethoven better than Beyoncé? Is Shakespeare better than Eastenders? Or are aesthetic disputes like deciding between the merits of different flavours of ice cream?

Students can also consider questions that arise in relation to specific artforms: How is it possible to respond emotionally towards the plight of fictional characters that are known not to exist? Do rock/pop music and classical music require different aesthetic criteria for their appreciation and evaluation? Why do we take pleasure in the aesthetic representation of tragic events? Students will be guided through their reading of various classical and contemporary works on such issues, and encouraged to think for themselves about the problems addressed.

Counter Cultures of the 1960s (Option)

This module will consider the complexities and contradictions of popular culture in Britain between c.1950 and 1970. Consideration will be given to the social, political and economic forces which brought about cultural change in the post-war period. The module will then consider the way in which popular culture and a variety of sub-cultures manifested themselves through behaviour, music, literature, film, fashion, recreational drugs, politics and sexuality.

Destroying Art: Iconoclasm through History (Option)

One of the clearest indications that art matters is when political regimes, religious groups, and individuals go to great lengths to destroy it. This module examines popular acts and official policies of iconoclasm, primarily in Europe and the Middle East, from antiquity to the present. Special attention will be paid to image debates in the formative periods of Jewish, Christian, and Islamic art, and to the systematic destruction of art in the Protestant Reformation, the French Revolution, and in Nazi Germany.

Digital Heritage (Option)

The cultural heritage sector increasingly offers opportunities for application of these rapidly developing digital technologies, as a communication, research and recording tool. This module offers the opportunity for students to become familiar with some of these advanced recording techniques for the study and recording of objects.

Disease, Health, and the Body in Early Modern Europe (Option)

This module examines how physicians, other practitioners, and the public understood the body, disease, and health in the early modern period. Although the medical system of Galen (2nd century AD) and humoral medicine guided Western medicine until the 1800s, between 1500-1700 there were major challenges to this traditional system. The work of elites such as Paracelsus and Van Helmont (chemical medicine), Vesalius (anatomy), Harvey (circulation and respiratory physiology) will be placed in a greater religious, social, and cultural context.

Dissertations and Beyond (Core)

This module aims to provide a framework for career planning and preparing for the world of work. It also provides the opportunity for students to develop the management skills needed for independent study, which is a compulsory part of level 3 of the programme.

Early Modern Family: Households in England c.1500-1750 (Option)

The module looks at a number of ways in which historians have studied the family in Britain between c.1500 and 1800. It will examine a range of historical approaches from the demographic to the more qualitative and anthropological. Close attention is paid to the problems historians of the pre-industrial family confront in their examination of the surviving primary sources.

Education and the State in Post-War England (Option)

This module aims to develop the skills of critical analysis and source interrogation by exploring the relationship between the State, at its central and local levels and the provision of education in England, with particular emphasis on developments since 1945.

Experiencing and Remembering Civil War in Britain (Option)

The civil wars that raged across England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland in the mid-seventeenth century were among the most turbulent and exhilarating times in British history. This module explores the diverse ways in which the wars were explained, experienced and remembered by those who lived through them. Students can consider the extent to which this period, often described as one of 'revolution', left a lasting impression on British society, culture, religion and politics.

From Caesar to Arthur: The Rise and Fall of Roman Britain (Option)

This module seeks to understand the history of Roman involvement in Britain on its own terms and enable students to grasp the importance of local responses to Roman cultural and political influence in the rise and fall of Roman Britain, through exploration of key themes such as: conquest and imperialism; ethnography and the other; religion; cities on the edge of empire; frontiers; military resistance and cooperation; Romanization. Particular focus will be placed on providing students the opportunity to develop a critical appreciation of the usefulness of archaeology to our understanding of the period.

Gender in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Option)

This module aims to introduce students to key theoretical and historiographical debates, and to the study of a wide range of source materials of use in modern British social and cultural history, while also exploring topics which shed light on the development of gendered ideals and practices in the nineteenth century. The module covers a roughly chronological series of case studies which pick up on the experiences of different groups in society and also offer a range of different types of source material.

Grand Expectations? America during the Cold War (Option)

The United States emerged from the Second World War a superpower, with, to an extent, a belief that it could remake the world. The challenges of the Cold War years were to demonstrate how limited was that power. This module explores the key social, political, economic and cultural developments in the United States between 1945 and 1990.

Hell and Damnation, life and afterlife: cultures of belief in England c.1550-1750 (Option)

This module examines the changing attitudes to life and the afterlife in England, and their cultural representation, in the two centuries after the Protestant Reformation. Examining the expansion in a number of rival religious and political groups, it considers the importance placing these within a social, cultural and economic, as well as theological, context. The module will focus on a range of religious groups considered to be a threat to the established church, or who have been identified by scholars as particularly significant in the period.

Heroes, Dames and Bad Guys: Popular Culture and Identity in Britain 1918-1939 (Option)

This module uses popular culture consumed by the British working and middle classes, including low and middle brow novels and films, as an entrance into the lives of ordinary Britons in the tumultuous decades between World War I and II. Students can trace the ways in which popular culture both reflected and produced certain anxieties about the social, economic, and political climate of the day, and how popular culture worked to construct, and occasionally subvert, normative visions of class, race, and gender.

Imperial Cities of the Early Modern World. (Option)

One of the ways in which early modern monarchs and rulers legitimised their authority and projected their power was through architecture and urban design. In this period capital cities across Europe and beyond were embellished with architecture and urban design inspired by Renaissance ideals of social order. This module examines the ways rulers imagined and built imperial capital cities across Europe and beyond and how emerging empires transformed cities through architecture and spatial design to embody the power and wealth of their rulers.

Italy, a Contested Nation. Social and political conflicts from Garibaldi to Berlusconi (Option)

Italy is a highly-politicised and ideologically-divided country. Divisions and internal conflicts, which have reached dramatic peaks, are a permanent feature in Italian history. They mirror unsolved social and political contradictions that many historians consider to be the result of the process of the Italian Risorgimento. National unification was prompted by republicans, but it was the Monarchy that achieved it.

Life and Labour in Industrial Britain (Option)

This module allows students the chance to develop an understanding of some of the key issues and discussions on the definition and practice of local and regional history. This will include a consideration of the local and regional dimension to historical study, including family history, parish history and urban history. Both a philosophical and practical level of understanding of the nature of regional and local history will be addressed. Students are provided with the opportunity to develop and apply research skills through class work on particular case studies through the use of primary sources.

Madness and the Asylum in Modern Britain (Option)

This module explores the relationship between madness and British society from the late eighteenth century to the present day. Students can examine how institutional approaches to the treatment of insanity have changed, from the eighteenth-century madhouse, to the Victorian asylum, to care in the community in the twentieth century. They will assess changing medical, legal and lay responses to insanity, including the role that class, gender, family and community played in defining insanity and its treatment.

Media and Mass Culture in 20th Century Britain (Option)

This module will explore the ways in which the press, the cinema, and radio and television broadcasting shaped politics, society and culture in twentieth century Britain. The module will examine the historical development of each of the major media forms and discuss the different types of content that they provided. The module will also explore a number of key issues, such as the impact of the media on the evolution of modern democracy, the media´s role in reflecting and shaping identities, and the media's contribution to the emergence of a consumer society.

Media, Controversy and Moral Panic (Option)

This module explores the history of media controversy and ‘moral panic’ during the twentieth century. It is designed to introduce students to media texts (especially films and television programmes) that have sparked debate and extreme differences of opinion among audiences in Britain and America. Students will be expected to engage with a range of films, television programmes and primary source material, which may include newspapers and television news broadcasts from the Media Archive of Central England (MACE).

Medieval Man and the Supernatural c. 1200-1500 (Option)

Miracles and magic; werewolves, vampires, priests and witches; church services and rituals. All of these formed a part of the belief system of medieval men and women between 1200 and 1500. This module uses original primary sources ranging from ghost stories to confessions of wizards to formal trials of heretics to look at what people believed, how we need to think about those beliefs today and what they tell us about Western European medieval society.

New Directions in Art History and History (Core)

This module aims to introduce students to the different approaches to the study of art history and history which have developed, with a particular focus on twentieth-century ideas and innovations, such as iconography, iconology, gender theory, social history. Students will be encouraged to think critically and creatively about how art history and history have developed within the academy.

Portraying and Governing a Global Empire: Cities in the Spanish Empire (Option)

This module considers the theoretical framework, design, and representations of cities in the early modern world. The imperial expansion in Spanish America was governed by the creation of new towns and interventions/renovations of urban centres. This urban development was influenced by the theoretical works of philosophers, artists, and imperial policies from Iberia as well as by thinkers from beyond Spanish frontiers. This module will explore cities in Iberia and their global imperial dominions as well as other European models and theories that influenced urban design in the Spanish empire.

Renaissances (Option)

This module explores cultural renaissances in Europe and beyond. It will examine the survival, imitation and revival of classical models from ancient Greece and Rome from late antiquity to the modern period. While our geographical focus will be the Mediterranean and northern Europe, we will also investigate cultures and cultural production influenced by European renaissances, for example in colonial Latin America, Africa and Asia. The first archaeological excavations in the eighteenth century inspired an interest in ancient ruins and a series of nineteenth-century revivals, not only of ancient but of medieval and Renaissance styles, linked to the rise of nation-states. Throughout the module, we will seek to understand the nature of particular renaissances and revivals and question the application and suitability of these terms. We will also engage with historical debates on the issue of periodization and ask how and why cycles of decline and renewal continue to shape our understanding of the past.

Science and Religion (Option)

The historical relationships between science and religion are amongst the most enduring and fascinating issues in the development of the modern world. There have been periods in western societies when new science has threatened established authority, for example the trial of Galileo in 1633 or the reported reaction to the publication of Darwin’s Origin of Species in 1859. This module will look at some of the historical encounters between science and religion.

Scrambling for Africa? Cultures of Empire and Resistance in East Africa, 1850-1965 (Option)

East Africa became a significant theatre of empire from the mid-nineteenth century, when David Livingstone championed European intervention to bring ‘Christianity, commerce and civilisation’ to the region. This module will explore the expansion of the British Empire into East Africa from the late nineteenth-century era of ‘high imperialism’ until decolonisation in the 1960s. This region provides rich opportunities to deepen an understanding of imperialism and offers key themes in the history of empire, including exploration, slavery, race, identity, gender, imperial networks, cultural representation and indigenous agency.

Struggles for Equality in C20 Europe (Option)

This module explores through various case-studies how people struggled for equality and social justice over the last century and asks why inequality has risen over the last three decades. Starting from attempts to reshape societies at the end of the First World War and the Russian Revolutions, the module examines how reformist and revolutionary strategies opposed each other during the inter-war years, how fascist movements tried to contain attempts at change and what solutions they proposed to the question of inequality.

The Age of Improvement: the Atlantic World in the long eighteenth century (Option)

The period from 1700 to 1850 was one of transition and change in the British Isles and North America, marking an ideological and material shift away from the legacy of medieval Europe and the period of initial colonial contact. This module challenges students to engage with historical, cartographical, and material evidence. Students are introduced to the landscapes, streetscapes, and social make-up of the long eighteenth century, and can discuss in seminars how broad events impacted everyday lives, the urban, and rural landscape.

The Birth of the Modern Age? British Politics, 1885-1914 (Option)

This module tests the claim that the period from the 1880s to the First World War was an ‘Age of Transition’, which witnessed the birth of modern British politics. Through an analysis of this argument, students are introduced to some of the major developments in British political history in the period 1885-1914, including the birth of the welfare state, the creation of the Labour Party, the conflict over ‘Votes for Women’ and British foreign policy before World War One.

The Byzantine World, c.750-c.1500 (Option)

This module is devoted to developing an understanding of the political, social and cultural history of the Byzantine World (c. CE 750-c. 1500), with a particular focus on institutions (for example the imperial office, monasteries), practices (warfare, diplomacy, ritual and ceremonial) and material resources (coinage, silks, 'Greek fire'). Byzantine art and architecture, literature and theology, will be studied in addressing aspects of the culture and ideology of the empire.

The Emperor in the Roman World (Option)

This module surveys the history of the Roman Empire not as a succession of emperors and achievements, victories and defeats, but as a complex of experiments in government and of attitudes to governance. Beginning with the transition from representative republican rule to the domination of an imperial dynasty and its network of élite dependants in the early first century, and concluding with the incipient takeover of this system by a newly Christianised ruling class in the early fourth century, students can explore the role of the emperor in the Roman world and the patterns of communication between him and his subjects.

The Forgotten Revolution? The Emergence of Feudal Europe (Option)

Almost all historians share the view that the social, economic and political structures of Europe in 1000 A.D. were significantly different to those that characterised the western superpower of Late Antiquity, the Roman Empire. In this challenging module, students will be encouraged to engage with a range of source material that will allow them to come to their own conclusions. Given this wide focus, students will have the opportunity to immerse themselves in the fascinating story of post-Carolingian Europe in such a way that they enhance their abilities to think comparatively, a crucial weapon in the historian’s armoury.

The Late Antique World, 300-800 (Option)

This module is devoted to developing your understanding of the political, social and cultural history of Late Antiquity (300-800), with a particular focus on two world-changing religious developments: rise of Christianity and Islam. Although the geographical focus of our studies will be on eastern Mediterranean lands of an empire ruled from Constantinople, known to later scholars as the Byzantine Empire, the geographical range of the module will be extremely wide (western Europe, including the western Mediterranean, Persia, Arabia, and ‘barbarian’ territories beyond the Roman frontiers on the Rhine and Danube). Lectures will provide a framework of political history and outline key themes, which will be studied in more detail in seminars.

The Roman World (Option)

This module surveys the political, social, economic, and cultural history of the Roman world as a complex conversation amongst written, material, and visual evidence, each not only supplementing the others but also often contributing new and otherwise unheard voices. We will explore the experiences of living, dying, working, and worshipping in the Roman world from the earliest evidence for the city of Rome to the diverse cultures of far-flung provinces. Through an examination of the complex, dynamic, and varied evidence of art, archaeology, architecture, epigraphy, and ancient histories, we will discover and question what it meant to live under the rule of Rome.

The World of Late Antiquity, 150-750 (Option)

This module aims to develop students' understanding of the political, social and cultural history of Late Antiquity (150-750), with a particular focus on two world-changing religious developments: the rise of Christianity and Islam. Although the geographical focus of our studies will be on eastern Mediterranean lands of an empire ruled from Constantinople, known to later scholars as the Byzantine Empire, the geographical range of the module will be extremely wide (western Europe, including the western Mediterranean, Persia, Arabia, and ‘barbarian’ territories beyond the Roman frontiers on the Rhine and Danube).

Themes in American Cultural History (Option)

This module aims to introduce students to some of the key interdisciplinary themes in American cultural history in the first half of the twentieth century as well as to theoretical works that have shaped American cultural studies since the 1950s. The module will investigate and evaluate academic argument relating to the study of American cultural history from a variety of theoretical, philosophical and methodological perspectives including feminism, social theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism.

Traditions and Modernities: British Society, Culture, and Politics, 1945 to the Present. (Option)

This module will consider how a range of domestic and international factors shaped modern Britain, a nation which emerged victorious from the Second World War, but with an uncertain place in the world. Students can critically engage with the historiography on post-war Britain as well as an array of primary sources. The course aims to provide a broadly chronological introduction to Britain’s development after 1945 and aims to equip students with an understanding of an under-researched area of history which has a very important bearing on the cultural and political debates of the present.

Urban Life and Society in the Middle Ages (Option)

Between the 11th and the 12th centuries Europe went through some radical changes. This module will focus on case studies, such as Lincoln, London and Paris, among others. Students will have the opportunity to study how and why such centres grew from small towns to some of the greatest and most vibrant metropolis of Western Europe in the Middle Ages. For a comparative study, a range of primary sources will be taken into account, including contemporary descriptions of these cities and their inhabitants, historical records, art and architecture.

Village detectives: Unearthing new histories (Option)

The typical image of a rural village, whether a chocolate box idyll prettily nestled around its church or a commuter dormitory boringly empty of anything fun to do, rarely shows much evidence for anything dramatic, but these places were created by people who lived through events which are almost unimaginable to us today including the Norman Conquest and the Black Death, and for whom a perpetual challenge was simply surviving in a period where barely half of those born lived to adulthood. In this module students will have the opportunity to learn how to critically analyse and interpret historical and archaeological evidence and to use their knowledge and skills to write a new history of any rural settlement of their choice.

Level 3

'O Bella Ciao' Fascism and Anti-fascism in Italy (Option)

This module will aim to introduce students to the history of Italian Fascism and the opposition to the regime: the Resistance. It will cover the history of Italy from the beginning of the 20th Century until the end of the Second World War and the establishment of the Republic in 1946. Historical interpretations of these key events in Italian and European history have always been very contentious and have aroused heated debates due to their ongoing political implications.

A Tale of Two Cities in Medieval Spain: From Toledo to Córdoba (Option)

In this module, students will have the opportunity to take a vivid and intellectually exciting journey through primary and secondary sources in order to understand the historical trajectory of the Iberian Peninsula from the end of the sixth century to the collapse of the Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. The aim of the module is to provide an introduction to two major medieval cities, Toledo and Córdoba, via acquaintance with and discussion of material that allows us to reflect upon a fascinating complex of problems.

Air War and Society from Zeppelins to Drones (Option)

In the Twentieth Century new aviation technologies transformed understandings of war, peace, civilian and military. The module considers how ideas about air power developed, what informed this understanding of war, and what the consequences were. This is not a traditional military history concerned with narrative accounts of battles or armies, but one that asks questions about the relationship between military and civilian in society and culture in the twentieth century.

Art History and History Independent Study (Core)

Students at level three have to undertake an Independent Study project. This is an extended piece of work that gives them the opportunity to demonstrate they have acquired the skills to undertake art historical and historical inquiry and analysis.

‘Anarchy is order’. Anarchism and social movements in Modern Europe (Option)

This module will explore the different schools of thought and the political activities of the various groups and individuals that comprised the anarchist movement. Anarchism is a political doctrine based on freedom, egalitarianism and social justice and that developed in Europe as a political movement in the mid-XIX century. Anarchism never reached the ascendancy achieved by liberalism or communism; however, it had a significant influence on the political ideas, social movements, culture, and education of the international labour movement.

Chivalry in Medieval Europe (Option)

The module is aimed at exploring both the birth and development of the concept of chivalry in the Middle Ages. As a seminar-based module, a wide range of primary sources, as well as medieval and contemporary historiography on the subject will be made available to students, who will use them to explore how the role, image and function of medieval knights evolved over time.

Consuming Societies: Western Europe 1600-1800 (Option)

The module will examine consumption in many of its forms in early modern Western Europe. Focusing on a number of areas, such as food, clothing, furnishings, houses and other goods increasingly accessible to people at all levels of society, the module will encourage students to consider how and why these were available.

Darwin's Dangerous Idea (Option)

The concept of Evolution by natural selection, jointly promulgated by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace in 1858, is one of the most influential ideas in contemporary intellectual and social life. The concept continues to be controversial even today. This module seeks to explore the development of the idea of evolution in historical and cultural context by examining the historical contexts in which evolutionary ideas have emerged and developed.

Early Modern Cultural and Artistic Encounters: Hybridity and Globalisation (Option)

This module considers early modern imperialism and its impact on artistic production at a global scale. Students will have the opportunity to examine Iberia and its world as a point for cultural encounter and cross-fertilization. The module aims to explore how local communities conflated their symbols of identity within transnational artistic trends and through a number of carefully selected case studies, will analyse the way in which communities – artists, patrons, collectors and audiences – negotiated these cultural encounters in the production and assimilation of the arts.

Exhibiting the World in the Nineteenth Century (Option)

This module explores the various ways in which the world was put on display in the nineteenth century, and with what aims and effects. The nineteenth century was a period during which museums, galleries, exhibitions, zoos and circuses all expanded in numbers and took on distinctive modern forms; it was also one where the ‘freak show’ became both popular but also frowned upon, while optical toys and attractions reformed ‘ways of seeing’.

From Revolution to New Republic: The United States 1760-1841 (Option)

This module explores the transformation of the United States from a set of thirteen colonies to an independent republic. Topics considered include: the causes of the Revolution, the governance of the new republic, the place of the new republic in the world, the experiences of excluded groups (loyalists, native Americans, African Americans).

History at the End of the World (Option)

Historian, journalist, political commentator and gossip columnist Matthew Paris, monk of St Albans, wrote what is still one of our main sources for British history of the thirteenth century. This module looks at Matthew Paris’s Great Chronicle, considering both Matthew himself and what he tells us about what this tells us about thirteenth-century English society. Students have the opportunity to think about what history was in the thirteenth-century and about attitudes to foreigners and national identity; power and poverty; propaganda and fiction; time, space and the apocalypse.

Mad or Bad? Criminal Lunacy in Britain, 1800 – 1900 (Option)

This module explores how criminal lunatics - criminals who developed insanity in prison and individuals who committed a crime whilst insane - were represented and treated in nineteenth century Britain. Students can examine why some criminals were deemed insane and others were not; how criminal lunacy was defined in medicine and in law; how and why the institutions, people and practices for treating the criminal and criminal lunatic changed over the period; the role gender and class played in crimes, trials, diagnoses and treatment; and how criminality and criminal insanity were represented by laymen.

Objects of Empire: the material worlds of British colonialism (Option)

This module will investigate the history of imperial Britain through material culture. The objects of study will range from trophies looted in battle and a drum transported with slaves to Virginia to African sculpture depicting Europeans. Historians increasingly recognise the fresh insights objects offer to major themes in imperial history such as gender, race and class. This module responds to these new academic developments and will use objects and their biographies to study key phases and themes in the history of British Empire. Tracing the long history of such objects can enable us to explore how objects change meanings as they move through various colonial and post-colonial contexts.

Representations of the First World War (Option)

A century after the armistice the First World War remains a common theme for artists, musicians, writers and filmmakers. This module aims to introduce students to a variety of some of the many different representations of the war. Starting with early films released before the armistice students will have the opportunity to explore a number of different texts including novels, documentaries, memoirs and feature films.

Republicanism in Early Modern England, 1500-1700 (Option)

Although early modern England was a kingdom, governed by a monarch, many historians have claimed that there was a strong ‘republican’ undercurrent to Tudor and Stuart political thought. This module introduces students to the key approaches and methodologies of the history of ideas by focusing upon the various ways in which scholars have studied and conceptualised republicanism in early modern England and the on-going debate surrounding the origin, content and influence of republican ideas in the period 1500-1700.

Rome and Constantinople: Monuments and Memory, 200-1200 (Option)

This module is devoted to two cities that were capitals of the Roman Empire, focusing on their monuments and how these were perceived and remembered over centuries. Rome and Constantinople, or Old Rome and New Rome as they came to be called in the East, were imperial cities where the most powerful figures – emperors and patriarchs, popes and saints – of antiquity and the Middle Ages built and destroyed, appropriated and reconfigured spaces, buildings and structures.

The British Monarchy and the Nation, 1870 to the Present. (Option)

This module aims to introduce students to different historical approaches to the monarchy and its relationship with the nation and the British world. It charts the changing role of monarchy from the reign of Queen Victoria to the present day, illuminating a cluster of related themes – including how the monarchy has sought to adapt to wider social, cultural, and political changes in order to maintain its power in Britain and the empire, the impact these strategies had on nationhood, identity, and the public sphere, and the way ordinary members of the public have historically understood the function of monarchy.

The City and the Citizen: urban space and the shaping of modern life, 1850 to present. (Option)

This module aims to examine how living in cities shaped the ways our lives and society have developed since the 19th Century. In the early 19th Century the population of Europe largely lived in rural settlements, yet 100 years later the populations of Western Europe's cities had exploded. Cities produced new forms of social organisation: for the first time drag queens and prostitutes rubbed shoulders with housewives, the rich discovered the poor on their very doorsteps and the unregulated spaces of cities became havens for counter-cultures, deviant sexualities and radical politics.

The European Union since 1945 (Option)

This module will focus on the process of economic and political integration, which has taken place in Western Europe since 1945. The emphasis will be placed on the global forces which have shaped, and are still shaping, this process of integration. The module will also investigate the impact of the Cold and Korean Wars, the European Recovery Programme and other factors from outside Europe.

The Goths: Barbarians through history? (Option)

This module explores two inter-related questions: Who were the Goths of late antiquity? Why have ideas of ‘Gothic-ness’ recurred so frequently since the end of the last Gothic kingdom in 711 CE? The module analyses historical, archaeological and other evidence for the Goths, their migration into Roman territory and their eventual settlement in Gaul, Spain and Italy in the third to eighth centuries. Drawing on the most recent scholarship, students will have the chance to challenge assumptions that the Goths were archetypal barbarians and caused the fall of the Roman Empire in the West and the dawn of a ‘dark age’.

The Philosophy and History of Colour (Option)

The world as we encounter it in visual perception is a world of coloured objects – red buses, yellow daffodils, blue skies, and the like. Colour raises a variety of perplexing philosophical puzzles concerning the nature of physical reality and our epistemic to the mental states of others. This module serves as an introduction to these issues.

Some of the questions to be explored include: Do objects really have the colours we ordinarily take them to possess? If so, what sort of property is colour? Are colours really just ‘impressions’ that exist only in the mind? If so, what causes these impressions? Do such impressions have representational content? What is the relationship between philosophical and scientific theories of colour? This is an interdisciplinary module that also explores issues relating to colour in art history and the history of science.

The Roman City (Option)

To the citizens of the Roman world, civility (civilitas) – right conduct of government, sound behaviour of individuals, citizenship itself – was a function of the city (civitas), which constituted the centre of the Roman state and society. This module will take students on a guided tour of the Roman city, using each stop along the way as a point of entry into one or more aspects of the politics, society, economy, and culture of Rome and its empire. Students will be challenged to reimagine urban life via a detailed engagement with a representative array of written, material, and visual sources and the main lines of the secondary literature.

The Roman Countryside (Option)

Before the Roman invasion of AD 43, everyone in Britain lived in ‘the countryside’, for the simple reason that there were no cities or towns. Indeed, throughout the four centuries of Roman rule which followed, the vast majority of people still lived outside of urban and military centres. The core objective of this module is an archaeological exploration of the great diversity of evidence, analysing the significance of the changing nature of rural society and the creation of rural landscapes and identities, focusing on Britain from the late pre-Roman Iron Age, through the Roman period, to its sub-Roman aftermath (c. 100 BC–AD 500).

The Social Construction of Sexuality, 1780-1930 (Option)

The module examine the changing role of the family during the Industrial Revolution. It will raise questions of how sexuality was regulated through discourse, and, towards the end of the nineteenth century, through ‘scientific’ classification. It will investigate how, in the 1920s, female sexuality and the satisfaction of female sexual desire, became the lynchpin of the nuclear family. In that way, the module will foreground the notions of negotiation and struggle and the discursive fields on which these battles were fought.

This is Britain: 20th Century Britain through the Media Archive of Central England (MACE) (Option)

The Media Archive of Central England, otherwise known as MACE, is held at the University of Lincoln and possesses the largest media archive of its kind in the UK. This archive-based module draws on sources within MACE which include ITV television news, 'home movies' and documentaries, and allows students to produce original research on MACE's holdings. Their research is then featured on the module's website for future historians to reference as they examine 20th Century Britain.

What is the Renaissance? (Option)

This module aims to explore the intellectual and cultural achievements of Renaissance, as well as its historiographic context. The period of transition from 'medieval' to 'modern' society that the Renaissance represents (or has been characterised as representing) is one of the most challenging areas of historical study, profoundly influencing historiography. Students will have the opportunity to examine in depth to what extent the historical periodisation of the 'Renaissance' has been a deliberate, although sometimes contentious, means to better understand events of the past, particularly in relation to cultural analysis.

†The availability of optional modules may vary from year to year and will be subject to minimum student numbers being achieved. This means that the availability of specific optional modules cannot be guaranteed. Optional module selection may also be affected by staff availability.

Special Features


Research in the School of History and Heritage covers more than 2,000 years of art history and history, with expertise in Roman and Byzantine visual and material culture and medieval history of art and architecture, including mosaics, stained glass, and sculpture.

Scholars also conduct research into a full range of early modern and modern specialisms, from Renaissance art to the history of film and TV. Staff maintain a high research profile, with regular attendance at key national and international conferences, and as invited speakers at a wide variety of other institutions’ research seminars. Staff also present their most recent research findings at a regular seminar series.

Lincoln Conservation brings together research, teaching and commercial expertise, including renowned conservation consultancy Crick Smith, specialising in architectural paint research and the digital and physical conservation of historic objects, decorative schemes and buildings. The expertise of its consultants has helped to inform the restoration of the Midland Grand Hotel (now known as the St Pancras Renaissance Hotel) and HMS Victory, among others.


Placement Year

When students are on an optional placement in the UK or overseas or studying abroad, they will be required to cover their own transport and accommodation and meals costs. Placements can range from a few weeks to a full year if students choose to undertake an optional sandwich year in industry.

Students are encouraged to obtain placements in industry independently. Tutors may provide support and advice to students who require it during this process.

Student as Producer

Student as Producer is a model of teaching and learning that encourages academics and undergraduate students to collaborate on research activities. It is a programme committed to learning through doing.

The Student as Producer initiative was commended by the QAA in our 2012 review and is one of the teaching and learning features that makes the Lincoln experience unique.


Art History and History at Lincoln sits within the School of History and Heritage, and is housed in the award-winning and inspiring Art, Architecture and Design building.

The Great Central Warehouse Library has more than 260,000 print book titles, more than 44,000 journals and an extensive range of electronic resources.

At Lincoln, we constantly invest in our campus as we aim to provide the best learning environment for our undergraduates. Whatever the area of study, the University strives to ensure students have access to specialist equipment and resources, to develop the skills, which they may need in their future career.

View our campus pages [] to learn more about our teaching and learning facilities.

Career Opportunities

Art History and History graduates may find employment in museums and art galleries, art and antique businesses, art publishing and administration, teaching and related fields, as well as other areas such as the managerial, administrative, media and financial sectors, advertising, PR and consultancy. Students may also go on to further study.

Careers Service

The University Careers and Employability Team offer qualified advisors who can work with students to provide tailored, individual support and careers advice during their time at the University. As a member of our alumni we also offer one-to-one support in the first year after completing a course, including access to events, vacancy information and website resources; with access to online vacancies and virtual resources for the following two years.

This service can include one-to-one coaching, CV advice and interview preparation to help you maximise our graduates future opportunities.

The service works closely with local, national and international employers, acting as a gateway to the business world.

Visit our Careers Service pages for further information. []

Additional Costs

For each course students may find that there are additional costs. These may be with regard to the specific clothing, materials or equipment required, depending on their subject area. Some courses provide opportunities for students to undertake field work or field trips. Where these are compulsory, the cost for the travel, accommodation and meals may be covered by the University and so is included in the fee. Where these are optional students will normally (unless stated otherwise) be required to pay their own transportation, accommodation and meal costs.

With regards to text books, the University provides students who enrol with a comprehensive reading list and our extensive library holds either material or virtual versions of the core texts that students are required to read. However, students may prefer to purchase some of these for themselves and will therefore be responsible for this cost. Where there may be exceptions to this general rule, information will be displayed in a section titled Other Costs below.

Related Courses

The BA (Hons) History degree at the University of Lincoln is distinctive in the breadth of topics that students can choose to study. These include British, European and American history, from the Roman Empire to the end of the 20th Century.
The BA (Hons) Conservation of Cultural Heritage degree offers opportunities to gain extensive, hands-on experience working on a range of historic materials provided by museums, historic houses and private collections. Students can become familiar with different materials, time periods and collections, within their historical context.

Tuition Fees

2018/19 Entry UK/EUInternational
Full-time £9,250 per level
£13,800 per level
Part-time £77.00 per credit point  N/A
Placement (optional) Exempt Exempt

In 2018/19, fees for all new and continuing undergraduate UK and EU students will be £9,250.

Please note that not all courses are available as a part-time option.

For more information and for details about funding your study, please see our UK/EU Fees & Funding pages or our International funding and scholarship pages. [] []

The University intends to provide its courses as outlined in these pages, although the University may make changes in accordance with the Student Admissions Terms and Conditions [].